The ESMF is a World Bank E&S instrument designed to catalogue the projects field of influence,
with a view to clarify environmental and social management policies such that, the project implementation
will be carried out in an environmentally and socially sustainable manner. The instrument leverages on in-country
existing laws and polices at each level of government as well as relevant World Bank policies and processes
that will lead to successful project output. Thus, the instrument provide information about scope of adverse E&S
risks and impacts expected during project planning, construction and operation; describe the approach to mitigation.
The EIA Act makes it mandatory for ESIA to be conducted for projects, which are likely to have significant effects on the environment. Project that will affects environmental sensitive areas e.g. biodiversity, flood plain or will affects livelihood and relocation of project affected persons.
For a sustainable project, it is important all stakeholders are informed so as to collate different viewpoints and concerns. By so doing, potential areas of conflict are pinpointed enabling mutual respect to be fostered, Stakeholders, Public participation should be seen as a continuous program for the environmental and social sustainability of the project.
It is a good practice to involve local people from the beginning in project activities such as: contributing with unskilled help during construction, confirming their commitment to receive the services and their willingness to pay, developing knowledge on how to use electricity efficiently, etc. For operation there are up-keeping and client management activities done by local staff, typically hired from local candidates; skilled electrician maintenance and repair activities is done by part-time staff from the region periodically, along with management and overhead activities. Revenues should at least cover these costs and the cost of replacement of components at the end of their life.
Batteries contain heavy metals such as mercury, lead, cadmium, silver, nickel and lithium. Heavy metals can cause malfunctioning of the cellular processes via displacement of essential metals from their respective sites. They have been noted to cause oxidative deterioration of biological macromolecules primarily because they bind to DNA and nuclear proteins.
Environmental ethics involves the study of good and bad, of right and wrong or simply a set of moral principles and values held by a person or a society to relationships between the environment, the people and the non-human entities. These values or ethics are considered instrumental for the pragmatic benefits it brings us and to the environment if we put it to use.